How Did the Leek Become the National Emblem of Wales?


Many years ago, in 640 A.D. Germanic tribes marched into Wales, intent on conquering it. The Welsh Britons, fought back. The legend is that the Britons, encouraged by their patron Saint David, pulled up leeks and secured them into their caps, enabling the soldiers to distinguish themselves from the invading tribes. The Britons must have felt that the leeks in their caps brought them good luck, (they won) and now today, that legend lives on, for the leek is the national emblem of Wales. But a leek as the national emblem did not suffice. Today the leek shares that title with the lovely daffodil. The daffodil is a very pretty flower and the leek, well… it’s kind of like an onion. But in Welsh, a leek is a cenhinen and a daffodil is a cenhinen pedr, so it’s understandable. But I imagine, the Welsh are quite proud of the leeks in their caps. And even if the Germanic tribes eventually swept through there, a victory is a victory and the story goes… the leeks in their caps, helped them win the war. Suellen Ocean is the author of the historic novel The Celtic Prince Available here:

Slaves… Not Even Promises


Back in 1724, in an attempt to “regulate” relationships between slaves and colonists, Louisiana enacted new rules. These rules were based on those created about forty years earlier for French Caribbean slaves. Article XXII of The Black Code of Louisiana, informs everyone that slaves have no right to own property and if they obtain it, through hard work or as a gift, it is not theirs but belongs to their “masters.” Article XXII makes it very clear. It even mentions promises. In other words, if an enslaved man made a promise to someone, it was null and void. The Louisiana Code noir was in effect until the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Suellen Ocean is the author of the series, Civil War Era Romances. Available here:

Book One, Black Pansy:

Book Two, Blue Violet:

Butterfly BLUE VIOLET Front Cover

Some Laws are Meant to be Broken… The Fugitive Slave Law was One of Them


BlackPansyKindleCover   Butterfly BLUE VIOLET Front Cover

As an author of historical fiction, I have to stop in the middle of my writing and go to the encyclopedia and check history. Because I have ancestry that lived in Mississippi, I have always been interested in the Civil War era. What was covered during my years in grade school and then in college, was not enough to satisfy my need to know. I will forever be learning something new. Reading about the thousands of slaves who took great risk and fled Southern plantations, believing they would be protected by the Union Army, is amazing. Especially knowing what would happen to them if they got caught. What they could count on, was that once they were in the hands of the Union, they would probably not be returned to the plantations, even with the Fugitive Slave Law that required their apprehension. So in other words, the Union Army broke the law when they did not return slaves to slavery. Many of the former slaves enlisted in the army and helped win the battle of the War Between the States.

Suellen Ocean is the author of the series, Civil War Era Romances. Available here:

Book One, Black Pansy:

Book Two, Blue Violet: